Busy lifestyle, endless snacks on the run, unwillingness to eat breakfast or dinner, trouble at work, at home - all of these are the most common reasons for weight gain.
Everyone knows that in order to lose weight, you must follow the principles of good nutrition. But what does it mean? Let's find out.
Basics of nutrition for weight loss
Food is the main and essential source of energy, nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Without it, the body cannot live, perform the necessary functions. It should be treated simply as a medicine, but in modern society, on the contrary, they worship it. It replaces friends, relatives, psychologists: more and more often, people apprehend stress, resentment, problems in their personal lives, doubts about themselves. Proper nutrition can help in this case - this is not a type of diet, it is not a special diet. Is that a person must learn to treat food as a source of energy, nothing more. The diet should provide the body with only the elements necessary for health, nutrients, vitamins.
The basic principles of good nutrition can be summarized as follows:
- Reduce the portion size. For saturation, just consume 200-300 grams of food at a time.
- Application of the "dish rule": half of the dish should be filled with vegetables, the other divided between proteins, complex carbohydrates.
- Drinking regime. It is necessary to consume 1, 5-2 liters of drinking water daily.
- It is necessary to eat frequently, but in small portions, about 4-6 times a day.
These rules are basic. Its introduction is sufficient to start losing weight. Usually, after that, people also notice a general improvement in their well-being: sleep gets stronger, mood and efficiency increase and lightness appears.
Where to start?
The hardest part of any new business is starting. Changes are often complicated, as are new diets. Proper nutrition is a very broad concept that includes several aspects. Let's take a closer look at the general principles suitable for most people who lose weight. In the future, they can be modified and adjusted for you:
- Removing “food waste” - these are products of low nutritional value that do not benefit the organism, on the contrary, they damage the functioning of some internal systems and organs. In addition, they have high caloric content. These include: sugar, products containing sugar, wheat flour baked goods, sausages, semi-finished meat products, fast food, sugary soft drinks, mayonnaise, store sauces.
- Eliminate the alcohol. Studies show that these drinks negatively affect appetite-producing neurons in the brain. As a result, a person's appetite increases a lot, even a small portion can cause a breakdown, loss of sense of proportion.
- Eat at the appointed time. A clear schedule, a pre-made menu allow you to follow strictly according to the plan, do not deviate from the planned trajectory. The main mistake of losing weight in the initial stage is to let things go by themselves. It is necessary to decide in advance what and when to eat, where to buy food, what alternative it can be. This is especially true for office workers who are used to having lunch at a buffet or cafe, where it is not always possible to find a suitable dish in terms of calories. Alternatively, you can buy five or six containers for each meal, write the exact time on them, take them to work, walk, etc.
- To psychologically tune a change in lifestyle: how to find motivation? How to get support from loved ones? How to acquire new good habits? How do I save them? These are all issues resolved with a psychologist. The scientific community around the world recognizes that a combination of adequate nutrition and psychotherapy is the best method to gradually lose weight without harming the body, both physically and psychologically.
You need to understand that after reaching the desired weight, you cannot give up the principles of healthy eating and go back to the old regime. The resulting eating habits must be consolidated, left in life forever. Only then will the extra pounds not return.
Correct transition to proper nutrition
How to switch to the right nutrition to lose weight? How to organize it at home using familiar products? The main condition here is graduality:
- introduces a new rule every week;
- reduce portion sizes slightly by adding more vegetables to each meal;
- leave your favorite dishes, but reduce the number: it is better to eat two cubes of chocolate on the spot than to eat an entire bar in between;
- motivate yourself to achieve a result: you need to set a real goal for which you want to go through all the difficulties and limitations;
- study materials on proper nutrition: on the Internet, in special literature, you can find a lot of interesting information, research that will talk about "allowed" and "prohibited" foods in various food systems;
- find support among family and friends.
It is recommended to keep a food diary and record each meal in it: time, portion weight, calories. Emotions can also be noticed: the desire to eat was caused by hunger, boredom, anxiety or other reasons. These records can be analyzed with a weight loss specialist.
For the past 50 years, humanity has been able to create a constant surplus of food for itself, and this situation requires a change in thinking, behavior, habits, traditions - and therefore the whole way of life. That is why dietology in weight loss must be combined with psychology, psychotherapy - to learn to understand better, maintain motivation, develop new habits and face difficulties on the path to weight loss. And this is where everything will work out.
What should be the diet?
The nutritional program is based on a competent diet. It must fully meet the body's needs for vitamins, minerals and nutrients. The latter are:
- Protein. The basis of the menu, since its lack can lead to a slowing down of the metabolism, to the development of many diseases. The standard is calculated individually, averaging 1, 5-2 grams per kilogram of weight.
- Fats, the use of which must be reduced by those who are losing weight, leaving only the "healthy" contained in fish, nuts, meat and other "allowed" products. The norm is 0. 5 g per kilo of body weight.
- Carbohydrates, the amount of which must also be reduced during weight loss, leaving the “complexes” in the diet: vegetables, fruits, cereals. The norm, in this case, is 2, 5-3 grams per kilogram of weight.
Calorie counting is generally recommended in the early stages:
- Calculate the rate using one of the following formulas:
for women: (10 × weight, kilograms) + (6, 25 × height, centimeters) - (5 × age, years) - 161.
for men: (10 × weight, kilograms) + (6, 25 × height, centimeters) - (5 × age, years) + 5.
Normally women need 1300-1500 kcal per day to lose weight, men - 1700-1900, everything depends on the individual characteristics of the body and the level of physical activity;
- subtract 10-15% from the value obtained. The resulting number is the number of calories the body needs per day for steady weight loss.
That is why it is recommended to keep a food diary: it will not be easy to keep so many numbers in your head, you can forget about a spontaneous snack. To lose weight, you need to consider every cookie, even the smallest, every cup of coffee with milk or cream you drink. All of these calories can help control your appetite.
Proper nutrition to lose weight should be tasty, varied and include several products. You should not be on a diet of only buckwheat, vegetables, foods must satisfy all the needs of the body, otherwise the weight loss process will be accompanied by side effects such as fatigue, apathy, headaches and decreased concentration.
The following products can be included in the menu:
- low-fat cheeses;
- chicken eggs;
- durum wheat dough;
- cereals: buckwheat, oats, rice;
- brown bread;
- fresh fruits, berries;
- lean meats, fish;
- dairy products and fermented dairy products;
- vegetable oil (with permission from a weight loss professional, as some nutritional systems require it to be completely removed).
The Food Scheme includes 4 to 6 meals. Ideally, every 3-4 hours. In that case, the calories allocated for the day should be distributed as follows:
- breakfast - 25-30%;
- lunch - 30-35 %%;
- dinner - 20-25%
- snacks - 10-15%.
This relationship promotes better absorption of nutrients, gradual weight loss without harming health. That is why fractional nutrition principles are at the heart of many approaches and techniques.
Breakfast with adequate nutrition for weight loss
Breakfast is the main, main meal, which is strictly forbidden to skip. Here's why:
- awakens the body, "turns on" all the main functions;
- activates digestion;
- energizes, invigorates and improves mood;
- reduces the risk of unplanned snacks;
- helps to strengthen the immune system, protects the body against viruses and infections;
- saturates the brain with nutrients and glucose needed to improve performance;
- improves metabolism.
Breakfast should be complete. You don't have to eat oats or omelettes every day. The recipes are immense and interesting: you can make cheesecakes, curd casserole, muesli with yogurt, scrambled eggs with added cheese, lean ham, toast with red fish. In fact, there are many options. It remains to get out of bed, set aside time in the morning to cook, a quiet breakfast, without confusion and haste.
Way of drinking
The human body is made up of two thirds of water, plays an important role in the life process, participates in many processes. That is why compliance with the drinking regime is one of the most important rules. But you need to drink wisely.
- How much drinking water does a person need per day? The norm is different for each one, on average - 30 ml for each kilogram of body weight. Its quantity should be increased to 40 ml in the hot summer period, during the illness, with intense long-term training.
- What does lack of water mean?
- 1-2% - one feels thirsty;
- 2-3% - there are disturbances in the digestive processes, there is a decrease in efficiency, loss of concentration;
- 4-5% - dizziness, headache, nausea and drowsiness occur;
- 5-9% - impaired movement coordination, incoherent speech;
- deficiency of more than 10% leads to cell death, changes in thermoregulation and biochemical processes and even death.
- Who should severely limit fluid intake? For most of us, any excess of drinking rules will not cause any health problems, so you can drink as soon as you feel thirsty. The exception is people who suffer from liver failure, kidney disease, hypertension, edema.
- What exactly should you drink? Most (at least 2/3) should be diverted to drinking water. The rest is for teas, herbal infusions, diluted vegetable juices. It is important to remember that alcohol, coffee, milk, soft drinks cannot be assigned to this category.
- How to drink properly? In small portions throughout the day, 20-30 minutes before each meal or an hour later. It is recommended to start the day with a glass of water: it should be drunk upon waking up, before breakfast.
People often confuse feelings not only of appetite and hunger, but also of hunger and thirst. Taking 200-250 g of water before meals accelerates the onset of satiety and encourages a reduction in portion sizes.
Example of proper nutrition menu for weight loss
Losing weight with an adequate diet will require a lot of patience, as the weight will gradually decrease, which means not at all fast. But this process does not harm health. A sample menu for a week can be as follows:
|Monday||Oats with fresh berries and berries, tea or coffee||Carrot and apple salad with no added sugar||Chicken Stew with Vegetable Stew||Low-fat cottage cheese with fruit, herbal tea||Cooked fish, fresh vegetable salad|
|Tuesday||Low-fat cottage cheese with bananas, berries||Orange or grapefruit||Steamed fish with rice garnish, fresh vegetables||Green apple, herbal tea||Roasted turkey meat, fresh vegetable salad|
|Wednesday||Cottage cheese pancakes with red or fresh berries, honey||Half a grapefruit, some nuts||Boiled fish with brown rice garnish, vegetable soup||Skimmed yogurt without added sugar, diet cookies or bread||Lean Pork Stew with Vegetables|
|Thursday||Muesli with yogurt, fruit, berries||Natural Yogurt||Cooked steak garnished with peas or other legumes (lentils, soy)||Curd casserole with yogurt, fruit||Salad with vegetables, seafood|
|Friday||Brown bread sandwich with a little butter and egg||Whole grapefruit and mint tea||Chicken and Mushroom Soup||Muesli with low fat yogurt||Fish baked with vegetables|
|Saturday||Oatmeal with milk, egg||Skimmed yogurt with fruit||Buckwheat porridge with any stew||A glass of kefir, an apple||Vegetable stew, boiled or roasted fish|
|Sunday||Omelet with two eggs, bread toast||Various fruits||Roast meat with vegetables||Boiled squids, tomato juice||Steamed chicken cutlets, vegetable salad|
On the Internet you can find recipes to lose weight with a photo. They can be downloaded, printed and used during daily cooking. They are generally tasty and suitable for children and adults.
Nutrition for Men
Proper nutrition is equally important for both sexes. After all, a well-chosen food is the first step towards health, energy and attractiveness. It is no secret that healthy eating has a beneficial effect not only on the digestive system, but also on the brain and human sexual functions.
Men's nutrition is different from that of women. So, for example, men need:
- To improve the functioning of the cardiovascular and reproductive systems, include low-fat fish, fresh vegetables, garlic, olive oil and nuts in your diet.
- Eat protein-rich foods regularly to maintain and gain muscle mass.
- It includes foods rich in ascorbic acid, B vitamins, zinc and fatty acids.
All other rules remain the same: eat fractional meals, consume enough clean water to drink.
Nutrition for women
The nutrition rules for women are basically the same as the standards - exclusion of fatty and fried foods, adherence to the drink regime and so on. In addition, it is recommended to include in the diet the following foods that are most beneficial to the female body:
- oats are a source of calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus and B vitamins. All this is necessary to maintain good health, condition of the hair, nails, skin;
- Salmon is a source of calcium, vitamins D and E, selenium and omega-3 saturated fatty acids. These substances are useful for the thyroid gland, stimulate the production of hormones;
- bananas are a source of potassium, tryptophan, beta-carotene, which are essential for maintaining the health of the heart, blood vessels, veins; Spinach
- is a source of folic acid, potassium, magnesium, iron, vitamins B and C, essential for maintaining immunity.
The menu must be composed competently, taking into account the individual characteristics, the needs of the body. Only then will the weight loss be smooth, without harming the body.
Food for children
The child's body is growing and developing rapidly, he needs external support, special nutrition:
- the menu must be varied, it is recommended to include fresh fruits, berries and vegetables, dairy products;
- mayonnaise, ketchup, other sauces with added colors, preservatives and flavorings should be excluded from the diet;
- it is better to limit your intake of salt and sugar;
- find a healthy alternative to "harmful" foods: for example, make your own french fries and croutons, buy healthy fruit-based sweets.
The problem of obesity in adolescence is growing at terrible proportions. This is due not only to fast food and physical inactivity, but also to the lack of attention from parents. Therefore, before putting a child on a diet, you need to contact a weight loss specialist and establish the real reasons for gaining pounds.
Nutritional characteristics of athletes
The athlete's diet should help the body recover from intense training, providing it with the substances necessary to build muscle mass and burn fat. For that:
- monitor the diet, count the calories, proteins, fats, carbohydrates consumed, strictly comply with the standard;
- during intense training, it is necessary to take additional biologically active additives (amino acids, BCAA complex).
You should also adapt your mealtime to your sports routine: eat two hours before training (complex carbohydrates and proteins) and at least an hour later (mainly protein foods).
All other rules are exactly the same for everyone.
Plates to burn fat
Let's look at some delicious but healthy recipes.
To make this soup, you will need:
- 300 grams of celery
- 400 grams of white cabbage;
- 3 large tomatoes;
- 2 peppers;
- vegetables to taste.
The soup can be cooked in low-fat broth, peeled vegetables should be placed in it and cooked for 10 minutes. Then add the herbs and cook for another 5-7 minutes. The dish should be infused for 15-20 minutes before serving.
Radish with squid
You will need:
- frozen squid fillet - 400 g;
- radish - 2-3 pcs;
- a medium carrot;
- an onion;
- two pickled cucumbers;
- two boiled eggs
- Low-fat sour cream or Greek yogurt
- lemon juice, herbs - to taste.
Cut all the ingredients into strips and mix with the cream.
How to save the result
The decision to adopt a healthy diet must be a deliberate decision. You need to set a clear goal and not deviate from the intended course. So, the result will persist for a long time, and the following rules will help with that:
- the basic principles of adequate nutrition must be firmly rooted in everyday life, they must not be abandoned;
- sometimes your favorite foods are allowed, controlling the portion size;
- add light physical activity to your daily routine: just 40 minutes of walking per day greatly reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, improves mood and well-being.
As a rule, those who want to lose weight try first to simply limit themselves to one or the other food, adhering to all types of diets (from fruits, vegetables and others - for separate or low calorie meals). The result is always the same. Or rather, its insecure nature. Because of this, people, sooner or later, become mentally exhausted and begin to show greater nervousness to others. Unfortunately, in the search for a healthy body, few people think about mental health. Most people stick to the "right" foods, believing that healthy eating is just food with the right mix of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and that it should nourish only the physical body. But, of course, there is another side to the issue - psychological. Without a sense of inner comfort, you cannot save any results. Violence (against itself, in this case) - as well as its results - is always finite. Therefore, any volitional tensions in terms of nutrition are always doomed to zero, or even worse. There is only one healthy way to maintain a healthy weight: to make eating right (eating) a habit, since most thin people live. They do not monitor calorie intake and the proportion of BZHU. They just got used to eating right - and don't realize what and how much they swallow. Happy people, yes. But you can do that too! Even if you are unable to develop a healthy eating habit on your own, weight loss experts will always help you. This is their profession, and it says it all.